Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa Edited by E.C.G Bedford, M.A. van den Berg & E.A de Villiers Second Edition (revised) 1998

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Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa Book. The literature on citrus pests in South Africa has again been reviewed and updated in this revised edition. Descriptions are given of all life stages of major citrus pests, together with their general biology, ecology, natural enemies and control. The pioneers of citrus entomology, the citrus industry, the citrus areas, the variation in pest status and the losses due to pests are discussed. Chemcial control measures for each pest are also reviewed. Parathion, as well as many more recently registered pesticides are shown to have caused numerous pest repercussions. Special emphasis is finally placed on integrated pest management (IPM) which is now an accepted approach to the control of citrus pests. Ant control is shown to be an essential prerequisite for biological control, allowing indigenous and introduced natural enemies to function successfully in IPM programmes. Most of the pests, which were once considered to be of major importance and required chemical control measures, can now be brought completely or largely under biological control. Emphasis is place on the fact that pesticides and fungicides required for the remaining pests such as the citrus thrips should be compatible with IPM and need to be carefully selected to avoid any pest repercussions which may make additional sprays essential.